Saturday, March 14, 2020
Biography of Victoria Woodhull, Women's Rights Activist Victoria Woodhull (born Victoria Claflin; September 23, 1838Ã¢â¬âJune 9, 1927) was a womens rights activist, stockbroker, and newspaper editor. She ran for president of the United States in 1872. Woodhull was also involved in the spiritualist movement, and for a time she made her living as a healer. Fast Facts: Victoria Woodhull Known For:Ã Candidacy for U.S. President; radicalism as a womens suffrage activist; role in a sex scandal involving Henry Ward BeecherAlso Known As:Ã Victoria California Claflin, Victoria Woodhull Martin, Wicked Woodhull, Mrs. SatanBorn:Ã September 23, 1838 in Homer, OhioParents: Roxanna Claflin and Reuben Buck ClaflinDied:Ã June 9, 1927 in BredonÃ¢â¬â¢s Norton,Ã Worcestershire, EnglandSpouse(s): Canning Woodhull, Colonel James Harvey Blood, John Biddulph MartinChildren: Byron Woodhull, Zulu (later Zula), Maude WoodhullNotable Quote: Of all the horrid brutalities of our age, I know of none so horrid as those that are sanctioned and defended by marriage. Early Life Victoria Claflin was born into the poor and eccentric family of Roxanna and Reuben Buck Claflin as the seventh of 10 children on September 23, 1838. Her mother often attended religious revivals and believed herself to be clairvoyant. The family traveled around selling patent medicines and telling fortunes, with the father styling himself Dr. R. B. Claflin, American King of Cancers. Victoria spent her childhood with this medicine show, often paired with her younger sister Tennessee in performing and telling fortunes. First Marriage Victoria met Canning Woodhull when she was 15 and they soon married. Canning also styled himself as a physician, at a time when licensing requirements were non-existent or loose. Canning Woodhull, like Victorias father, sold patent medicines. They had a son Byron, who was born with serious intellectual disabilities, which Victoria blamed on her husbands drinking. Victoria moved to San Francisco and worked as an actress and cigar girl. She later rejoined her husband in New York City, where the rest of the Claflin family was living, and Victoria and her sister Tennessee began practicing as mediums. In 1864, the Woodhulls and Tennessee moved to Cincinnati, then to Chicago, and then began traveling, keeping ahead of complaints and legal proceedings. Victoria and Canning later had a second child, a daughter Zulu (later known as Zula). Over time, Victoria grew less tolerant of her husbands drinking, womanizing, and occasional beatings. They divorced in 1864, with Victoria keeping her ex-husbands surname. Spiritualism and Free Love Likely during her troubled first marriage, Victoria Woodhull became an advocate of free love, the idea that a person has the right to stay with a person as long as they choose, and that they can choose another (monogamous) relationship when they want to move on. She met Colonel James Harvey Blood, also a spiritualist and an advocate of free love. They are said to have married in 1866, though there are no records of this marriage. Victoria Woodhull, Captain Blood, Victorias sister Tennessee, and their mother eventually moved to New York City. In New York City, Victoria established a popular salon where many of the citys intellectual elite gathered. There she became acquainted with Stephen Pearl Andrews, an advocate of free love, spiritualism, and womens rights. Congressman Benjamin F. Butler was another acquaintance and advocate of womens rights and free love. Through her salon, Victoria became increasingly interested in womens rights and suffrage. Womens Suffrage Movement In January 1871, the National Woman Suffrage Association met in Washington, D.C. On January 11, Victoria Woodhull arranged to testify before the House Judiciary Committee on the topic of womens suffrage, and the NWSA convention was postponed a day so that those attending could see Woodhull testifying. Her speech was written with Rep. Benjamin Butler of Massachusetts and made the case that women already had the right to vote based on the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The NWSA leadership then invited Woodhull to address their gathering. The leadership of the NWSA- which included Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Isabella Beecher Hooker- was so taken with the speech that they began promoting Woodhull as an advocate and speaker for womens suffrage. Theodore Tilton was a supporter and officer of the NWSA and also a close friend of one of Woodhulls critics, Reverend Henry Ward Beecher. Elizabeth Cady Stanton told Victoria Woodhull confidentially that Tiltons wife Elizabeth had been involved in an affair with the Reverend Beecher. When Beecher refused to introduce Woodhull at a November 1871 lecture at Steinway Halls, she visited him privately and reportedly confronted him about his affair. Still, he refused to do the honors at her lecture. In her speech the next day, she referred indirectly to the affair as an example of sexual hypocrisy and double standards. Because of the scandal this caused, Woodhull lost a significant amount of business, though her lectures were still in demand. She and her family had trouble paying their bills,Ã however, and were eventually evicted from their home. Presidential Candidacy In May 1872, a breakaway group from the NWSA- the National Radical Reformers- nominated Woodhull as a candidate for U.S. president of the Equal Rights Party. They nominated Frederick Douglass, a newspaper editor, former slave, and abolitionist, as vice president. Theres no record that Douglass accepted the nomination. Susan B. Anthony opposed the nomination of Woodhull, while Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Isabella Beecher Hooker supported her run for the presidency. Beecher Scandal Woodhull continued to have significant financial problems, even suspending her journal for a few months. Perhaps responding to continued denunciations of her moral character, on November 2, just before Election Day, Woodhull revealed specifics of the Beecher/Tilton affair in a speech and published an account of the affair in the resumed Weekly. She also published a story about a stockbroker, Luther Challis, and his seduction of young women. Her target was not the morality of the sexual affairs, but the hypocrisy that permitted powerful men to be sexually free while women were denied such freedom. The reaction to the public revelation of the Beecher/Tilton affair was a great public outcry. Woodhull was arrested under the Comstock Law for distribution of obscene material through the mail and charged with libel. In the meantime, the presidential election was held, and Woodhull received no official votes. (Some scattered votes for her were likely not reported.) In 1877, after the scandal had subsided, Tennessee, Victoria, and their mother moved to England, where they lived comfortably. Life in England In England, Woodhull met wealthy banker John Biddulph Martin, who proposed to her. They did not marry until 1882, apparently because of his familys opposition to the match, and she worked to distance herself from her former radical ideas on sex and love. Woodhull used her new married name, Victoria Woodhull Martin, in her writings and public appearances after her marriage. Tennessee married Lord Francis Cook in 1885. Victoria published Stirpiculture, or the Scientific Propagation of the Human Race in 1888; with Tennessee, The Human Body, the Temple of God in 1890; and in 1892, Humanitarian Money: The Unsolved Riddle. Woodhull traveled to the United States occasionally and was nominated in 1892 as the presidential candidate of the Humanitarian Party. England remained her primary residence. In 1895, she returned to publishing with a new paper, The Humanitarian, which advocated eugenics. In this venture, she worked with her daughter Zulu Maude Woodhull. Woodhull also founded a school and an agricultural show and became involved in a number of humanitarian causes. John Martin died in March 1897, and Victoria did not remarry. Death In her later years, Woodhull became involved in the womens suffrage campaigns led by the Pankhursts. She died on June 9, 1927, in England. Legacy Though she was considered controversial in her time, Woodhull has come to be widely admired for her trailblazing efforts to secure rights for women. Two womens rights organizations- the Woodhull Insititute for Ethical Leadership and the Woodhull Sexual Freedom Alliance- were named in her honor, and in 2001 Woodhull was added to the National Womens Hall of Fame. Sources Gabriel, Mary.Ã Notorious Victoria: The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored. Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1998.Goldsmith, Barbara.Ã Other Powers: The Age of Suffrage, Spiritualism, and the Scandalous Victoria Woodhull. Granta, 1998.Underhill, Lois Beachy.Ã The Woman Who Ran for President: The Many Lives of Victoria Woodhull. Penguin, 1996.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Is Airport Security Too Strict or Not Strict Enough - Essay Example In addition, one should pose to think if the security measures have benefits to the security of the American nation. Some people may feel that the measures invade too much into their privacy. However, it is worth noting that the intentions of the check are to ensure security of the traveler (Samantha). Most people think about the discomfort the check causes and forget that it is for their own good. In an era when the nation has been trying to respond to the war waged against them, security has to be more stringent. The attacker may take advantage of any loophole in the security system. Screening of passengers seeks to ensure that none of them has in possession any firearm or potentially destructive material. One of the check equipment is the metal detector that screens through the individual and produces a beep signal upon detection of a suspicious object. All personal luggage and cargo go through an x-ray screening system that screens through the bulk of the luggage. These measures did exist even before the attacks but they have only become more specific and elaborate. In addition, this is an era when some drug dealers have become too smart to disguise their illegal luggage. The security system has to tighten up to keep the situation under control. One of the reasons why the business has been booming is because in some areas of the world, security is not tight enough and drugs go in and out easily. To curb this, homeland security is justified to tighten security. It is evident that tight security is essential in airports for the safety of passengers and the nation at large. Probably, people should not complain about the stringency with which security comes but rather the real debate should seek to establish quicker and less cumbersome security equipment. What most Americans are complaining about is the hustling and queuing at the airports. This brings out the issue that security equipment used lack efficiency and is time consuming. In other cases, invasion of privacy is unavoidable because the equipment cannot screen effectively without this. What America needs are advanced equipment for security checks that are more efficient and time-saving and that allow the security officers to respect the privacy of the people. The transportation security administration
Monday, February 10, 2020
Outcome 2,8,11,12 and 13 - Essay Example On examination, his pulse rate was 120 per minute and his blood pressure was 80/50mmHg. I immediately made a diagnosis of anaphylactic reaction and stopped the iron drip. I started oxygen and initiated plain saline drip. I gave 10ml per kg bolus. I then called the house officer who was appreciative of my immediate response to the reaction that saved the patient. Intravenous iron therapy is associated with risk of anaphylactic reactions that can be fatal. hence it is important to closely monitor any patient on intravenous iron therapy. The patient was worried and asked me as to what was the problem. I told him that he reacted to the drug that was administered to him. he then asked me as to what would be the other means of increasing his hemoglobin and I told him that the next option would be blood transfusion. Outcome 8 12 year old Annah, a known case of acute lymphatic leukemia was brought to the emergency department with complaints of fever. She has been on chemotherapy for the past 3 months. She has no other complaints except for feeling of weakness. On examination, her pulse rate was 120 per minute and the pulses were bounding. She was febrile and even respiratory rate was high. Her blood pressures were11/90mmHg. She appeared toxic. She also looked pale. Examination of the systems revelaaed no abnormality. I suspected neutropenia in this patient secondary to chemotherapy. I send blood samples for complete blood picture including neutrophil count, blood culture and urine culture. In view of rise in respiratory rate, I checked her saturations which were normal. I asked for an X-ray. The reports revealed neutropenia. I made a diagnosis of febrile neutropneia and called the oncologist who ordered to initiate broad spectrum anitbiotics ceftazidime and gentamycin, while awaiting culture results. The parents were worried and asked me about the cause of fever. I told them that due to cancer treatment, the defense mechanisms were lost which contributed to increased r isk of infections. It is very important for a nurse taking care of hematological cancer patients to be aware of the most significant and disastrous complication, febrile nuetropenia which needs admission and management in the hospital. Febrile neutropenia can lead to sepsis (Bedbie et al, 2000). If untreated, it can lead to severe sepsis and shock. Annah's parents were worried that she might go into shock. I understood the concerns of the patient and directed them to the physician's chamber to meet the physician who was more qualified to address the needs of the parents. Outcome 11 In our out-patient department, we often would encounter patients with iron deficiency anemia who would be started on oral iron supplements. Iron supplements are very nasty because they can cause many side effects like abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and constipation, because of which compliance is very poor. There was one particular 55 year old gentle man who had persistent low hemoglobin levels despite iron therapy. Infact, we were planning to evaluate for other causes of hemoglobin when his wife told us that he was not taking his medication regularly because of side effects. I then told the patient into confidence and educated him about the important and benefits of iron therapy. I told him to take iron medication about one hour after meals to minimise side effects and also to have the best absorption possible. I told the patient to drink some orange juice after taking iron
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Financial Distress Paper Essay The current global economic crisis has seriously affected the financial activities of my academic institution. One of the major donors for our business school, a bank, has pulled out and is currently facing charges of breaking federal banking regulatory laws. All indications are that the bank will go under and will have to file for protection under chapter 11. With this conduit of funds no longer there, the business school will have to restructure. There are five programs currently in place at the business school, three of which are involved in teaching and research. They have been in existence for the last thirty years. As the head of faculty for the business school, I will recommend to the long range planning committee that the restructuring be directed at the other two programs. These are recently introduced graduate management courses, whose students, totaling fifty in number, can be gradually absorbed within the other graduate business courses. The cuts will therefore have to be effected within the faculty staff of the two programs being phased out. All tenured and non-tenured faculty staff will receive a one year termination notice with full severance benefits. Since their total combined yearly compensations is about as much as lost donor funding, the scaled down business school will be able to survive until other avenues are found to fund new programs. These recommendations will be made based on the need to retain teaching and research as a priority. Students who are currently enrolled in all programs will not suffer as they will be retained to continue learning within the existing programs. Additionally, the retrenchment will not be abrupt, but will be implemented over the course of one year, giving affected faculty staff ample time to appeal or seek positions elsewhere. Distress Paper 2 References Senate of Michigan Technological University (1985, May). UNIVERSITY RETRENCHMENT POLICY. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www. sas. it. mtu. edu/usenate/propose/80-89/7-85. htm
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Introduction With the increasing need for technology proficient students, educational computing needs to start at an early age. Computing should be involved in each level of education from K-12 to higher education. This essay will cover the issues, challenges, and conclusions of computing education methods in different educational levels, internet in education, using Ã¢â¬Å"edutainmentÃ¢â¬ within curriculum, and teaching information literacy. Background Literature Learning can be described as a process of interaction of student-to-professor, student-to-student, student-to-material, and student-to-expert/practitioner. Traditionally, a students learning is limited to class lectures, face-to-face discussions, office visits, quizzes, and tests (Wang, 2007, p280). Wang states that student learning quality can be improved by increasing these basic interactions. According to Wang, the Internet can improve the quality of these interactions when integrated into the classroom setting. The Internet improves the interaction of student-to-professor, student-to-student, student-to-material, and student-to-expert/practitioner (Wang, 2007, p 281). According to Wang, traditional classroom learning has extreme limitations. Most information is dispensed in lecture, especially in a college setting, and assessed with a test. Students have very little time to reflect and to express their thoughts and feelings about what is taking place. They have very little time to communicate to the professor what they are learning or having difficulty learning after each class session. Often students misconceive what they read and what they hear in a lecture setting. These misconceptions are carried through into an examination and are seldom resolved (Wang, 2007, p 281). Mary Green and Mary Nell McNeese believe that video games are an untapped resource in education. They refer to games that could be educational as Ã¢â¬Å"edutainment.Ã¢â¬ The main purpose of edutainment is to promote student learning through exploration, interactivity, trial and error, and repetition in such a way that students get so lost in the fun, that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize they are learning at the same time. By playing digital games, students exercise various skills such as strategizing, and problem solving to conquer the enemy, save the princess, or find the hidden treasure (Green, 2007, p 6).
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Nick Barnett Bethann Bowman English 101 October 5, 2009 Soap Over the Ages Many of these advertisements feature soap. It makes you smell great and can even attract a member of the opposite sex. Soap advertisements have been baiting men by bringing attractive women into the ads for decades. The soap ads of the 1950s and the ads of today are equally effective; both use sex appeal, although the bluntness and textual content vary greatly, the new ads are more explicit and less wordy. The audience of the 1950s needed soft colors and visual images with many meanings. The Lifebuoy ad uses cartoon people and very pale colors. Visually, this allows the few things in a bright color to stand out. The tag-line Ã¢â¬Å"It smells so good now, it makes me wonderÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ stands out along with the Lifebuoy box which is also red to grab the attention of the reader amongst the dull colors surrounding it. The woman in the background has a few possible meanings; sex appeal, appeal to women, or maybe even a figure of cleanliness. Text in an ad of the 1950s is a must and tells exactly what is being advertised and why it is better than the competition. The text in the ad builds up Lifebuoy by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Now you get protection as long as 3 days. Ã¢â¬ Lifebuoy also announces its discovery of something new called Puritan. Then, Lifebuoy start bashing the competition with words such as, Ã¢â¬Å" New Lifebuoy protects you longer than the old Lifebuoy, and longer, of course, than any leading toilet soap. Ã¢â¬ The use of italics with the phrase toilet soap is meant to draw your attention to it and make sure you understand how bad all other soaps are. Lifebuoy also guarantees you will like it or you will receive a refund. The text of the 1950s ad is the bulk of the ad unlike the ads of today. This is most likely due to the culture the 1950s had a slower pace of life than the 2000s. The LYNX advertisement of the 2000s is almost entirely based off images. The focal point of the ad is a woman in nothing but underwear covered in mud with the words Ã¢â¬Å"wash meÃ¢â¬ written on her. The woman is also standing in a shower and looks like she is getting ready to take off the rest of her clothes. This ad is completely based on sex appeal. Sex has been proven to sell, and in this case, sex is selling body wash. Masculinity is provoked by the very opposite, a feminine body in the blue (male) shower with the blue (male) body wash. LYNX selling point is that if you use LYNX, you will have attractive women wanting you. This an effective strategy, but it is also stereotyping women as sex objects. The Ã¢â¬Å"wash meÃ¢â¬ written on her stomach is similar to what people write on cars and is used to humor the audience. There is only one line of actual text in the ad it says, Ã¢â¬Å"LYNX Shower Gel. Get Dirty. Ã¢â¬ The text is used to reinforce the image and the sex appeal of the product. In fifty years, soap advertisers have not changed their visual strategy. Both the ad from the 1950s and the one of the 2000s rely on sex appeal to sell their product. The use of women as the sex object from which they are launching their advertising campaign is also the similar. They both are also risque for their time and push the border between what is appropriate and what is not just a little further. They both imply that if their soap is used, then you too will have a beautiful woman almost naked wanting you. They both also have provocative text to reinforce their sexual images. The 1950s ad says, Ã¢â¬Å"It smells so good now, it makes me wonderÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ implies that he is wondering something sexual because there is a woman in a towel in the background. The LYNX ad uses the line, Ã¢â¬Å"Get Dirty. Ã¢â¬ with the dirty woman in the ad this is obviously a sexual innuendo. Both advertisements use sex to sale their product, that is undeniable, but the degree which they do it is vast. The LYNX ad uses just seven words to sell their product, only two of which tell what the product is. The 1950s ad on the other hand has over five paragraphs of text describing the product in full detail. The Lifebuoy ad takes a shot at the competition in their text and even offers a money back guarantee. The LYNX ad does none of these things in its short, seven word ad. The LYNX ad also has a more blatant use of sexuality. These differences are likely due to the difference in time periods. The ad in the 1950s had to do more than catch attention with sex appeal. It had to describe thoroughly why it was better to win over an audience that placed an astounding importance on quality. The 2000s audience however does not have time to read words in its fast paced society making the limited amount of text convenient to the reader. This audience also more callused to sexuality so a more explicit image is necessary to attract the same amount of attention. Ads for soap have changed dramatically over the years. They have gotten less wordy and more colorful. The style of the soap has even changed from bar form to liquid. The thing that has not changed though, is that selling soap is still all about sex. Works Cited Lever Bros. Ã¢â¬Å"It smells so good now, it makes me wonderÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ Advertisement. Lever Bros. Lever Bros, n. d. Web 10 Oct. 2009. Unilever. Ã¢â¬Å"Get DirtyÃ¢â¬ Advertisement. Unilever. Unilever, n. d. Web. 10 Oct. 2009. Works Sited
Monday, January 6, 2020
Fences tells the story of Troy, a sour sanitation worker desperately clinging to the notion that he could have played Major League Baseball. He is unlikeable and unfair, at times cruel and severe, however these actions are a result of his turbulent childhood, his constant defeat in the face of adversity, be they his baseball career or the struggles of his day to day life. A tragedy in the truest sense, Fences chronicles Ã¢â¬Å"the heart and spirit of the average manÃ¢â¬ (Miller). The mold Wilson uses to cast Troy has its share of cracks and imperfections, but rather than focusing on the many faults on the surface of an underprivileged life, it is paramount that the origins of these cracks and the sources of these imperfections is understood; onlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The fence can also be viewed as the symbolic obstacles Troy faces in throughout his life. Poverty and homelessness as a young man, 15 years in prison, the color line in baseball, all are fences which he was u nable to surmount. Like many tragic stories Ã¢â¬Å"the underlying struggle is that of the individual attempting to gain his rightful position in his societyÃ¢â¬ (Miller). Fences is full of struggles starting for Troy as soon as he comes into this world. Troy is born in 1904 into a less than perfect world and by the time he is fourteen years old he leaves Alabama to escape his abusive father. He runs away to Pittsburgh, following the promise that there are good jobs there. Wilson sets the scene in Ã¢â¬ËSteel CityÃ¢â¬â¢, a place of great importance to him. He was born there and sets Ã¢â¬Å"nine out of the ten plays in the neighborhood of the Hill DistrictÃ¢â¬ (Wardi 1). His relationship with his father is lacking, something that he is determined to improve upon with his own children, but as time progresses, it becomes apparent that the apple hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t fallen far from the tree. As a father Troy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much to go off of, the only love he has ever know has come from his father. Hi s mother left when he was young, as did all of the women his father courted: Ã¢â¬Å"He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t good for nobodyÃ¢â¬ (Wilson 556). So in addition to his absent father figure